Ship to Ship Transfer Guide: Petroleum
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This guide covers ship-to-ship (STS) transfer operations of crude oil and petroleum products. It is primarily intended to familiarize Masters and ship operators with the general principles involved. This guide is directly concerned with STS transfer operations undertaken at sea and therefore in places that may be beyond the assistance of normal port services. The recommendations apply to seagoing ships when it is intended that they moor alongside each other but may also be useful as a reference when establishing rules for transfer operations between seagoing ships and barges or estuarial craft in inshore waters.