Bunkers - An Analysis of the Technical and Environmental Issue
: Witherby Seamanship International Ltd
This is a fully revised edition of the key reference work on bunkers, completely updated to reflect the latest technical, regulatory, and environmental changes in the marine fuel sector.
This fourth edition of Bunkers provides updated and comprehensive information about the technical aspects of bunkering. This edition does not include a legal section but instead marries the practical elements of bunkering with the highly topical and important environmental issues of today, from trading within ECAs to embracing abatement technologies.
Clearly some technology has not changed since 2004, such as refining and basic fuel handling and treatment and some test methods. For completeness, these fundamentals have been included in this edition, along with the many changes and new developments in fuel specifications, environmental matters, contaminants, testing technology and quantity determination.
This book discusses the future uses of different types of fuel, their availability and prices, how regulations will change and how laboratories will analyse this changing mix.
More stringent environmental regulations, price volatility and the dramatic slow-down in world demand for goods moved by ship has occurred while there has been an unprecedented increase in the world fleet, and this new edition comprehensively covers the cost implications of all these factors.
Credit risk assessment and ship arrest for non-payment of bunker bills are covered, as are market developments such as the impact of slow steaming and the increasing interest in alternative fuels such as liquefied natural gas, bio fuels and even nuclear.
The authors hope that with a better understanding of the complex issues involved with bunkering the number of disputes and claims can be reduced or handled in a more efficient and professional manner. The market and environmental sections should be of interest to the bunker supply industry, shipowners and charterers, especially those involved with planning and ship design and future operations.
The contents of this book have been selected on the basis that they will be of value to a wide audience, including marine engineering students, seagoing engineers, technical managers, members of the legal profession, insurers, owners and charterers of ships, fuel suppliers, environmentalists, abatement and marine technologists as well as those involved with surveying, inspection and testing of marine fuels.